Bruce Walker

Bruce Walker

Professor of the Practice

Bruce Walker investigates cellular immune responses in chronic human viral infections, with a particular focus on HIV immunology and vaccine development.



Ragon Institute, Room 870 (400 Technology Square)


Marissa Ferrara



Assistant Phone


  • PhD, 1993, University of Vienna
  • BS, 1989, Biology, University of Vienna

Research Summary

The overarching goal of my laboratory is to define the interplay of immunologic, virologic and host genetic factors that determine control of human viral infections, to guide vaccine development and immunotherapeutic interventions. To address this goal, we focus on HIV infection.


  • ​Bernard Fields Lectureship, 2015
  • NIH Merit Award, 2011, 2004
  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2010
  • National Academy of Medicine, 2009
  • American Association of Physicians, 2000
  • Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award, 1999
  • American Society for Clinical Investigation, 1993

Key Publications

  1. Augmentation of HIV-specific T cell function by immediate treatment of hyperacute HIV-1 infection. Ndhlovu, ZM, Kazer, SW, Nkosi, T, Ogunshola, F, Muema, DM, Anmole, G, Swann, SA, Moodley, A, Dong, K, Reddy, T et al.. 2019. Sci Transl Med 11, .
    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau0528PMID:31118290
  2. Structural topology defines protective CD8+ T cell epitopes in the HIV proteome. Gaiha, GD, Rossin, EJ, Urbach, J, Landeros, C, Collins, DR, Nwonu, C, Muzhingi, I, Anahtar, MN, Waring, OM, Piechocka-Trocha, A et al.. 2019. Science 364, 480-484.
    doi: 10.1126/science.aav5095PMID:31048489
  3. Resistance of HIV-infected macrophages to CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated killing drives activation of the immune system. Clayton, KL, Collins, DR, Lengieza, J, Ghebremichael, M, Dotiwala, F, Lieberman, J, Walker, BD. 2018. Nat Immunol 19, 475-486.
    doi: 10.1038/s41590-018-0085-3PMID:29670239
  4. A genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies a restricted set of HIV host dependency factors. Park, RJ, Wang, T, Koundakjian, D, Hultquist, JF, Lamothe-Molina, P, Monel, B, Schumann, K, Yu, H, Krupzcak, KM, Garcia-Beltran, W et al.. 2017. Nat Genet 49, 193-203.
    doi: 10.1038/ng.3741PMID:27992415
  5. Antiviral CD8+ T Cells Restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Exist during Natural HIV Infection and Exhibit Clonal Expansion. Ranasinghe, S, Lamothe, PA, Soghoian, DZ, Kazer, SW, Cole, MB, Shalek, AK, Yosef, N, Jones, RB, Donaghey, F, Nwonu, C et al.. 2016. Immunity 45, 917-930.
    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.09.015PMID:27760342
  6. Magnitude and Kinetics of CD8+ T Cell Activation during Hyperacute HIV Infection Impact Viral Set Point. Ndhlovu, ZM, Kamya, P, Mewalal, N, Kløverpris, HN, Nkosi, T, Pretorius, K, Laher, F, Ogunshola, F, Chopera, D, Shekhar, K et al.. 2015. Immunity 43, 591-604.
    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.08.012PMID:26362266
  7. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection. Chen, H, Ndhlovu, ZM, Liu, D, Porter, LC, Fang, JW, Darko, S, Brockman, MA, Miura, T, Brumme, ZL, Schneidewind, A et al.. 2012. Nat Immunol 13, 691-700.
    doi: 10.1038/ni.2342PMID:22683743
  8. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. International HIV Controllers Study, Pereyra, F, Jia, X, McLaren, PJ, Telenti, A, de Bakker, PI, Walker, BD, Ripke, S, Brumme, CJ, Pulit, SL et al.. 2010. Science 330, 1551-7.
    doi: 10.1126/science.1195271PMID:21051598
  9. CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load. Kiepiela, P, Ngumbela, K, Thobakgale, C, Ramduth, D, Honeyborne, I, Moodley, E, Reddy, S, de Pierres, C, Mncube, Z, Mkhwanazi, N et al.. 2007. Nat Med 13, 46-53.
    doi: 10.1038/nm1520PMID:17173051
  10. PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Day, CL, Kaufmann, DE, Kiepiela, P, Brown, JA, Moodley, ES, Reddy, S, Mackey, EW, Miller, JD, Leslie, AJ, DePierres, C et al.. 2006. Nature 443, 350-4.
    doi: 10.1038/nature05115PMID:16921384

Recent Publications

  1. Expansion of Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in the lungs in severe COVID-19. Kaneko, N, Boucau, J, Kuo, HH, Perugino, C, Mahajan, VS, Farmer, JR, Liu, H, Diefenbach, TJ, Piechocka-Trocha, A, Lefteri, K et al.. 2021. medRxiv , .
    doi: 10.1101/2021.03.23.21253885PMID:33791730
  2. Implicit Solvents for the Polarizable Atomic Multipole AMOEBA Force Field. Corrigan, RA, Qi, G, Thiel, AC, Lynn, JR, Walker, BD, Casavant, TL, Lagardere, L, Piquemal, JP, Ponder, JW, Ren, P et al.. 2021. J Chem Theory Comput 17, 2323-2341.
    doi: 10.1021/acs.jctc.0c01286PMID:33769814
  3. The AMP Trials - A Glass Half Full. Walker, BD. 2021. N Engl J Med 384, 1068-1069.
    doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2101131PMID:33730459
  4. HIV-infected macrophages resist efficient NK cell-mediated killing while preserving inflammatory cytokine responses. Clayton, KL, Mylvaganam, G, Villasmil-Ocando, A, Stuart, H, Maus, MV, Rashidian, M, Ploegh, HL, Walker, BD. 2021. Cell Host Microbe 29, 435-447.e9.
    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.01.006PMID:33571449
  5. Innate lymphoid cells and disease tolerance in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Silverstein, NJ, Wang, Y, Manickas-Hill, Z, Carbone, CC, Dauphin, A, Li, JZ, Walker, BD, Yu, XG, Luban, J. 2021. medRxiv , .
    doi: 10.1101/2021.01.14.21249839PMID:33469605
  6. Dendritic cells focus CTL responses toward highly conserved and topologically important HIV-1 epitopes. Garcia-Bates, TM, Palma, ML, Anderko, RR, Hsu, DC, Ananworanich, J, Korber, BT, Gaiha, GD, Phanuphak, N, Thomas, R, Tovanabutra, S et al.. 2021. EBioMedicine 63, 103175.
    doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103175PMID:33450518
  7. A sealed-tube method for offline δ13 C analysis of CO2 via a Gas Bench II continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Walker, BD, Beaupré, SR, Griffin, S, Walker, J, Druffel, E, Xu, X. 2021. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 35, e9040.
    doi: 10.1002/rcm.9040PMID:33373477
  8. Assessment of Maternal and Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load, Transplacental Antibody Transfer, and Placental Pathology in Pregnancies During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Edlow, AG, Li, JZ, Collier, AY, Atyeo, C, James, KE, Boatin, AA, Gray, KJ, Bordt, EA, Shook, LL, Yonker, LM et al.. 2020. JAMA Netw Open 3, e2030455.
    doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30455PMID:33351086
  9. Profound Treg perturbations correlate with COVID-19 severity. Galván-Peña, S, Leon, J, Chowdhary, K, Michelson, DA, Vijaykumar, B, Yang, L, Magnuson, A, Manickas-Hill, Z, Piechocka-Trocha, A, Worrall, DP et al.. 2020. bioRxiv , .
    doi: 10.1101/2020.12.11.416180PMID:33330871
  10. Evolution and Diversity of Immune Responses during Acute HIV Infection. Kazer, SW, Walker, BD, Shalek, AK. 2020. Immunity 53, 908-924.
    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.015PMID:33207216
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Photo credit: Howard Hughes Medical Institute