Bruce Walker

Bruce Walker

Professor of the Practice

Bruce Walker investigates cellular immune responses in chronic human viral infections, with a particular focus on HIV immunology and vaccine development.



Ragon Institute, Room 870 (400 Technology Square)


Marissa Ferrara



Assistant Phone


  • PhD, 1993, University of Vienna
  • BS, 1989, Biology, University of Vienna

Research Summary

The overarching goal of my laboratory is to define the interplay of immunologic, virologic and host genetic factors that determine control of human viral infections, to guide vaccine development and immunotherapeutic interventions. To address this goal, we focus on HIV infection.


  • ​Bernard Fields Lectureship, 2015
  • NIH Merit Award, 2011, 2004
  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2010
  • National Academy of Medicine, 2009
  • American Association of Physicians, 2000
  • Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award, 1999
  • American Society for Clinical Investigation, 1993

Key Publications

  1. Augmentation of HIV-specific T cell function by immediate treatment of hyperacute HIV-1 infection. Ndhlovu, ZM, Kazer, SW, Nkosi, T, Ogunshola, F, Muema, DM, Anmole, G, Swann, SA, Moodley, A, Dong, K, Reddy, T et al.. 2019. Sci Transl Med 11, .
    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau0528PMID:31118290
  2. Structural topology defines protective CD8+ T cell epitopes in the HIV proteome. Gaiha, GD, Rossin, EJ, Urbach, J, Landeros, C, Collins, DR, Nwonu, C, Muzhingi, I, Anahtar, MN, Waring, OM, Piechocka-Trocha, A et al.. 2019. Science 364, 480-484.
    doi: 10.1126/science.aav5095PMID:31048489
  3. Resistance of HIV-infected macrophages to CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated killing drives activation of the immune system. Clayton, KL, Collins, DR, Lengieza, J, Ghebremichael, M, Dotiwala, F, Lieberman, J, Walker, BD. 2018. Nat Immunol 19, 475-486.
    doi: 10.1038/s41590-018-0085-3PMID:29670239
  4. A genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies a restricted set of HIV host dependency factors. Park, RJ, Wang, T, Koundakjian, D, Hultquist, JF, Lamothe-Molina, P, Monel, B, Schumann, K, Yu, H, Krupzcak, KM, Garcia-Beltran, W et al.. 2017. Nat Genet 49, 193-203.
    doi: 10.1038/ng.3741PMID:27992415
  5. Antiviral CD8+ T Cells Restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Exist during Natural HIV Infection and Exhibit Clonal Expansion. Ranasinghe, S, Lamothe, PA, Soghoian, DZ, Kazer, SW, Cole, MB, Shalek, AK, Yosef, N, Jones, RB, Donaghey, F, Nwonu, C et al.. 2016. Immunity 45, 917-930.
    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.09.015PMID:27760342
  6. Magnitude and Kinetics of CD8+ T Cell Activation during Hyperacute HIV Infection Impact Viral Set Point. Ndhlovu, ZM, Kamya, P, Mewalal, N, Kløverpris, HN, Nkosi, T, Pretorius, K, Laher, F, Ogunshola, F, Chopera, D, Shekhar, K et al.. 2015. Immunity 43, 591-604.
    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.08.012PMID:26362266
  7. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection. Chen, H, Ndhlovu, ZM, Liu, D, Porter, LC, Fang, JW, Darko, S, Brockman, MA, Miura, T, Brumme, ZL, Schneidewind, A et al.. 2012. Nat Immunol 13, 691-700.
    doi: 10.1038/ni.2342PMID:22683743
  8. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. International HIV Controllers Study, Pereyra, F, Jia, X, McLaren, PJ, Telenti, A, de Bakker, PI, Walker, BD, Ripke, S, Brumme, CJ, Pulit, SL et al.. 2010. Science 330, 1551-7.
    doi: 10.1126/science.1195271PMID:21051598
  9. CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load. Kiepiela, P, Ngumbela, K, Thobakgale, C, Ramduth, D, Honeyborne, I, Moodley, E, Reddy, S, de Pierres, C, Mncube, Z, Mkhwanazi, N et al.. 2007. Nat Med 13, 46-53.
    doi: 10.1038/nm1520PMID:17173051
  10. PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Day, CL, Kaufmann, DE, Kiepiela, P, Brown, JA, Moodley, ES, Reddy, S, Mackey, EW, Miller, JD, Leslie, AJ, DePierres, C et al.. 2006. Nature 443, 350-4.
    doi: 10.1038/nature05115PMID:16921384

Recent Publications

  1. Viral epitope profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals cross-reactivity and correlates of severity. Shrock, E, Fujimura, E, Kula, T, Timms, RT, Lee, IH, Leng, Y, Robinson, ML, Sie, BM, Li, MZ, Chen, Y et al.. 2020. Science , .
    doi: 10.1126/science.abd4250PMID:32994364
  2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 with SHERLOCK One-Pot Testing. Joung, J, Ladha, A, Saito, M, Kim, NG, Woolley, AE, Segel, M, Barretto, RPJ, Ranu, A, Macrae, RK, Faure, G et al.. 2020. N Engl J Med 383, 1492-1494.
    doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2026172PMID:32937062
  3. Concanamycin A counteracts HIV-1 Nef to enhance immune clearance of infected primary cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Painter, MM, Zimmerman, GE, Merlino, MS, Robertson, AW, Terry, VH, Ren, X, McLeod, MR, Gomez-Rodriguez, L, Garcia, KA, Leonard, JA et al.. 2020. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 117, 23835-23846.
    doi: 10.1073/pnas.2008615117PMID:32900948
  4. Loss of Bcl-6-Expressing T Follicular Helper Cells and Germinal Centers in COVID-19. Kaneko, N, Kuo, HH, Boucau, J, Farmer, JR, Allard-Chamard, H, Mahajan, VS, Piechocka-Trocha, A, Lefteri, K, Osborn, M, Bals, J et al.. 2020. Cell 183, 143-157.e13.
    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.025PMID:32877699
  5. Distinct viral reservoirs in individuals with spontaneous control of HIV-1. Jiang, C, Lian, X, Gao, C, Sun, X, Einkauf, KB, Chevalier, JM, Chen, SMY, Hua, S, Rhee, B, Chang, K et al.. 2020. Nature 585, 261-267.
    doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2651-8PMID:32848246
  6. The Loss of Bcl-6 Expressing T Follicular Helper Cells and the Absence of Germinal Centers in COVID-19. Kaneko, N, Kuo, HH, Boucau, J, Farmer, JR, Allard-Chamard, H, Mahajan, VS, Piechocka-Trocha, A, Lefteri, K, Osborn, M, Bals, J et al.. 2020. SSRN , 3652322.
    doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3652322PMID:32742244
  7. Point-of-care testing for COVID-19 using SHERLOCK diagnostics. Joung, J, Ladha, A, Saito, M, Segel, M, Bruneau, R, Huang, MW, Kim, NG, Yu, X, Li, J, Walker, BD et al.. 2020. medRxiv , .
    doi: 10.1101/2020.05.04.20091231PMID:32511521
  8. HIGH-FREQUENCY failure of combination antiretroviral therapy in paediatric HIV infection is associated with unmet maternal needs causing maternal NON-ADHERENCE. Millar, JR, Bengu, N, Fillis, R, Sprenger, K, Ntlantsana, V, Vieira, VA, Khambati, N, Archary, M, Muenchhoff, M, Groll, A et al.. 2020. EClinicalMedicine 22, 100344.
    doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100344PMID:32510047
  9. Envelope characteristics in individuals who developed neutralizing antibodies targeting different epitopes in HIV-1 subtype C infection. Ndlovu, B, Gounder, K, Muema, D, Raju, N, Hermanus, T, Mthethwa, Q, Robertson, K, Walker, BD, Georgiev, IS, Morris, L et al.. 2020. Virology 546, 1-12.
    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2020.03.003PMID:32275203
  10. Integrated single-cell analysis of multicellular immune dynamics during hyperacute HIV-1 infection. Kazer, SW, Aicher, TP, Muema, DM, Carroll, SL, Ordovas-Montanes, J, Miao, VN, Tu, AA, Ziegler, CGK, Nyquist, SK, Wong, EB et al.. 2020. Nat Med 26, 511-518.
    doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0799-2PMID:32251406
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Photo credit: Howard Hughes Medical Institute