Jianzhu Chen

Our research seeks fundamental understanding of the immune system as well as its application in cancer immunotherapy and vaccine development. We study molecular and cellular mechanisms of immunological and disease processes by taking advantage of the vast array of genomic data, humanized mice and clinical samples.
Our researches are carried out at the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and at the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) in Singapore.


 


Modeling Diseases and Treatments in Humanized Mice: Humanized mice refer to mice stably reconstituted or engrafted with human tissues/cells, such as human immune and liver cells.  Humanized mice with a reconstituted human immune system are constructed by engrafting immunodeficient mice with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which then give rise to all human blood lineage cells throughout the lifetime of the mice.

We have made significant contributions to the development of the humanized mouse technology by i) expanding HSCs in vitro for large scale construction of humanized mice (Drake et al 2011; Khoury et al 2011), ii) expressing human cytokines in recipient mice to enhance the reconstitution and function of human immune cells (Chen et al 2009), including myeloid lineage cells (Chen et al 2012; Li et al 2013), and iii) generating humanized mice with human liver cells and matching human immune system (Chen et al 2013).

The stable reconstitution of human cells in mice provides a unique opportunity to model diseases mediated by human cells in the presence of autologous human immune system. By expressing proto-oncogenes Bcl-2 and Myc in human B-lineage cells, we have constructed double-hit lymphoma in humanized mice that exhibits characteristic histopathological features of the human tumor, including infiltration into the central nervous system (Leskov et al, 2012). We have evaluated the efficacy of anti-CD52 antibody (alentuzumab) for treating double-hit lymphoma and identified a potent synergy between alentuzumab and cyclophosphamide in eliminating bone marrow residual tumor cells (Pallasch et al, 2014). We have also developed humanized mouse models of infectious diseases for various pathogens that infect only human cells, including dengue virus (Sridharan et al 2013), Plasmodium falciparum (Chen et al 2014), and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) (Oo et al submitted). 

Moving forward, we are interested in studying human diseases and interventions in humanized mice, including:

  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of human hematologic cancers,
  • Mechanisms of cancer immunotherapies in mice with human cancer and autologous human immune system,
  • Molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune responses to dengue virus and malaria parasite,
  • Vaccine development for dengue and malaria.

Macrophages in Immunity and Diseases: Macrophages are widely spread in all tissues with different phenotypes and functions. They play critical roles in such diverse processes as tissue homeostasis and remodeling and immune responses. Because macrophages are a key group of inflammatory cells, they are also involved in many inflammatory diseases. However, because of their diversity and plasticity, macrophages are under studied and their precise role in tissue homeostasis, immunity and diseases are not well understood. We are interested in alveolar macrophages in the lung, especially their role in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. We are developing a convergent research program, taking advantage of existing transcriptional profiling studies, humanized mice, and clinical samples, to elucidate molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of macrophages in lung immunity and diseases, with a long-term goal of manipulating alveolar macrophages for treating TB infection and inflammatory lung diseases.


Chen Q, Khoury M, Chen J (2009) Expression of human cytokine genes dramatically improves reconstitution of specific human blood lineage cells in humanized mice. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106:21783-8. PMID: 19966223.

Chen Q, Khoury M, Limmon G, Choolani M, Chan JKY, Chen J. (2013) Human fetal hepatic stem cells are distinct from, but closely related to, hematopoietic stem cells. Stem Cells, 31:1160-9. PMID: 23404852.

Sridharan A, Chen Q, Tang KF, Oo EE, Hibberd ML, Chen J. (2013) Inhibition of megakaryocyte development in the bone marrow underlies dengue virus-induced thrombocytopenia in humanized mice. J Virol, 87:11648-58.

Chen Q, Amaladoss A, Ye W, Liu M, Dummler S, Kong F, Wong LH, Loo HL, Loh E, Tan SQ, Tan TC, Chang KTE, Dao M, Suresh S, Preiser PR, Chen J. (2014) Natural killer cells control Plasmodium falciparum infection by eliminating infected red blood cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 111:1479-84.

Leskov I, Pallasch CP, Drake A, Iliopoulou BP, Souza A, Shen C-H, Schweighofer CD, Abruzzo L, Frenzel LP, Wendtner CM, Hemann MT and Chen J. (2012) Rapid generation of human B-cell leukemia via combined expression of Myc and Bcl2. Oncogene, 32:1066-1072.

Pallasch CP, Leskov I, Braun CJ, Vorholt D, Drake A, Soto-Feliciano YM, Bent EH, Schwamb J, Iliopoulou B, Kutsch N, van Rooijen N, Frenzel LP, Wendtner CM, Heukamp L, Kreuzer KA, Hallek M, Chen J, Hemann MT. (2014) Sensitizing protective tumor microenvironments to antibody-mediated therapy. Cell, 156:590-602.

Hu G and Chen J. (2013) A genome-wide regulatory network identifies key transcription factors for memory CD8+ T cell development. Nature Communication, 4:2830. PMID: 24335726.


Complete List of Publications

1. Chen J, Stall AM, Herzenberg LA and Herzenberg LA.  (1990) Differences in glycoprotein complexes associated with IgM and IgD on normal murine B cells potentially enable transduction of different signals.  EMBO J.  9:2117-2124.

2. Chen J, Herzenberg LA and Herzenberg LA.  (1990) Heparin inhibits EcoR1 endonuclease cleavage of DNA at certain EcoR1 sites.  Nucleic Acid Res. 18:3255-3260.

3. Chen J, Herzenberg LA and Herzenberg LA.  (1991) Heparin alters immunoglobulin expression by pre-B cell lines and normal Ly-1 (CD5+) B cells.  International Immunol  3:1117-1127.

4. Alt FW, Oltz E.M, Young F, Gorman J, Taccioli G and Chen J.  (1992) VDJ  recombination.  Immunol Today  13:306-314.

5. Chen J, Trounstine M, Kuraha C, Young F, Kuo CC, Xu Y, Loring JF, Alt, FW and Huzsar D.  (1993) B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin κ light chain genes.  EMBO J  12:821-830.

6. Chen J and Alt FW.  (1993)  Gene rearrangement and B cell development.  Cur Opin Immunol  5:194-200.

7. Chen J, Lansford R, Stewart V, Young F and Alt FW.  (1993)  RAG-2-deficient blastocyst complementation: An assay of gene function in lymphocyte development.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  90:4528-4532. PMID: 8506249.

8. Chen J, Trounstine M, Alt FW, Young F, Kuraha C, Loring JF and Huzsar D.  (1993)  Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in B cell deficient mice generated by targeted deletion of the JH locus.  International Immunol  5:647-656.

9. Chen J, Gorman JR, Stewart V, Williams B, Jacks T and Alt FW.  (1993) Generation of normal lymphocyte populations by Rb-deficient ES cells.  Cur Bio  3:405-413.

10. Oltz EM, Alt FW, Lin W-C, Chen J, Taccioli G, Desiderio S, Rathbun G. (1993)  A V(D)J recombinase inducible B cell line: Role of transceiptional enhancer elements in directing V(D)J recombination.  Mol Cell Bio  13:6223-6230.

11. Chen J, Young F, Bottaro A, Stewart V, Smith RK, Alt FW.  (1993)  Mutations of the intronic IgH enhancer and its flanking sequences differentially affect accessibility of the JH locus.  EMBO J 12:4635-4645.

12. Chen J and Alt FW.  (1994)  RAG-2-deficient blastocyst complementation.  In: Bluthmann H, Ohashi P, eds. Transgenesis and targeted mutagenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, pp35-49.

13. Chen J Shinkai Y, Young F, and  Alt FW.  (1994)  Probing immune functions in RAG minus mice.  Cur Opin Immunol 6:313-319.

14. Chen J, Hilberg F, Stewart V, Spyrou G, Wagner E, Alt FW.  (1994)  Generation of normal T and B cells by c-jun-deficient ES cells.  Immunity 1:65-72.

15. Alt FW and Chen J.  (1994)  The use of targeted mutations in ES cells to create novel immunodeficient mouse models.  In Proceedings of Symposium on Human Immunodeficiency.  pp45-60.  Springer, Wien.

16. Chen J, Ma A, Young F, Alt FW.  (1994) Interleukin-2 receptor α chain (IL-2Rα) expression during early B lymphocyte differentiation.  International Immunology, 6:1265-1268.

17. Tsai F-Y, Kuo FC, Keller G, Weiss M, Chen J, Rosenblatt M, Alt FW, Orkin SH.  (1994)  Targeted mutation of transcription factor GATA-2 leads to an early hematopoietic defect.  Nature, 317:221-226.

18. Willerford D, Chen J, Ferry JA, Davidson L, Ma A, and Alt FW.  (1995) Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the lymphoid compartment Immunity, 3:521-530.

19. Ma A, Datta M, Margosian E, Chen J, Horak I.  (1995)  T cells, but not B cells, are required for bowel inflammation in interleukin 2-deficient mice.  J. Exp. Med.  182:1567-1572.

20. Lansford R, Okada A, Chen J, Oltz EM, Blackwell K, Alt FW, Rathbun G. (1996)  Mechanism and control of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.  In: Molecular Immunology, ed. Hames BD and Glover DM. IRL Press at Oxford University, P1-100.

21. Zhang W, Zimmer G, Chen J, Ladd DJ, Li E, Alt FW, Wiederrecht G, Cryan J, O’Neill EA, Seidman CE, Abbas AK, and Seidman JG.  (1996)  T cell responses in calcineurin Aα -deficient mice.  J. Exp. Med. 183:413-420.

22. Chen J.  (1996)  Analysis of lymphocyte differentiation and function by RAG-2-deficient blastocyst complementation.  Adv. Immunol. 62:31-59.

23. Chen J and Alt FW.  Generation of antigen receptor diversity.  In Exploring Genetic Mechanisms, ed. Berg P and Singer M.  University Science Books, Sausalito, California. P337-404.

24. Chen, J. and Alt, F. W., “Overview: Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and switching,” Weir’s Handbook of Experimental Immunology, edited by Herzenberg, L. A., Weir, D. M., Herzenberg, L. A. and Blackwell, C., Blackwell Science, Inc. Cambridge, MA, 5th edition, 1996, pp15.1-15.5.

25. Chattopadhyay S, Whitehurst C, Schwenk F. and Chen J.  (1998) Biochemical and functional analyses of chromatin changes at the TCRβ gene locus during CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+ thymocyte differentiation.  J. Immunol. 160:1256-1267.

26. Boes, M., Esau, C., Fischer, M. B., Schmidt, T., Carroll, M. C., Chen, J.  (1998) Enhanced B-1 cell development, but impaired antibody response in mice  deficient in secreted IgM.  J. Immunol. 160:4776-4787.

27. Bottaro, A., Young, F., Chen, J., Serve, M., Sablitzky, F., Alt, F.  (1998) Deletion of the immunoglobulin intronic enhancer and associated matrix-attachment regions decreases, but does not abolish, class switching at the μ locus.  Intl. Immunol. 10:799-806.

28. Chattopadhyay S., Whitehurst C. and Chen, J.  (1998) A nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) upstream of the T cell receptor β gene enhancer binds Cux/DCP and SATB1 and modulates enhancer-dependent reporter gene expression but not endogenous gene expression.  J. Biol. Chem. 273:29838-29846.

29.  Boes, M., Prodeus, A. P., Carroll, M. C., Chen, J.  (1998) A critical role of natural IgM in immediate response against systemic bacterial infection. J. Exp. Med. 188:2381-2386.

30.   Wang, B., Wang, N., Whitehurst, C., She, J., Chen J., Terhorst, C. (1999) T lymphocyte development in the absence of CD3ε or CD3γδεζ  J. Immunol. 162:88-94.

31.   Whitehurst C., Chattopadhyay S., and Chen, J.   (1999) Control of V(D)J recombinational accessibility of the Dβ1 gene segment at the TCRβ locus by a germline promoter.  Immunity 10:313-322.

32. Cho, B., Wang, C. Y., Sugawa, S., Eisen, H. N., Chen, J.  (1999) Functional differences between memory and naïve CD8 T cells.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 2976-298.

33. Kim, M., Qiu, P., Abuodeh, R., Chen, J., and Yuan, D. (1999) Differential regulation of transcription termination occurring at two different sites on the μδ gene complex. Intl. Immunol. 11:101-111.

34. Kuzin, I., Ugine, G., Wu, D., Young, F., Chen, J., Bottaro, A. (2000) Normal isotyoe switching in B cells lacking the Iμ exon splice donor site: evidence for multiple Iμ-like germline transcripts.  J Immunol. 164:1451-7.

35. Boes, M., Schmidt, T., Linkemann, K., Beaudette, B. C., Marshak-Rothstain, A., Chen, J. (2000) Accelerated development of IgG autoantibodies and autoimmune disease in the absence of secreted IgM. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1184-1189

36. Cho, B. K., Palliser., D., Guillen, E., Wisniewski, J., Young, R. A., Chen, J. and Eisen, H. E. (2000) A proposed mechanism for the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production by heat shock fusion proteins. Immunity 12:263-272.

37.   Baumgarth, N., Herman, O. C., Jager, G. C., Brown, L. E., Boes, M., Herzenberg, L. A., Chen, J. (2000) B-1 and B-2 cell-derived IgM antibodies are non-redundant components of the protective response to influenza virus infection. J. Exp. Med. 192:271-80.

38. Cho, B., Varada, R., Ge, Q., Eisen, H. E., Chen, J. (2000) Homeostasis-stimulated proliferation drives naïve T cells to differentiate directly into memory cells. J. Exp. Med. 192:549-556.

39. Sleckman, B. P., Bassing, C. H., Hughes, M. M., Okada, A., D’Auteuil M., Wehrly, T., Woodman, B. B., Davidson, L., Chen, J., Alt, F. W. (2000) Mechanisms that direct ordered assembly of T cell receptor β locus V, D and J gene segments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:7975-7980.

40. Chattopadhyay, S., Kaul, R., Charest, A., Housman, D., Chen, J.  (2000) SMAR1, a novel, alternatively spliced gene product, binds to scafflod/matrix associated region at the T cell receptor β locus.  Genomics, 68:93-96.

41. Baumgarth, N., Chen, J., Herman, O. C., Jager, G. C., Herzenberg, L. A.  (2000) The role of B-1 and B-2 cells in immune protection from influenza virus infection. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 252:163-169.

42. Whitehurst, C., Schlissel, M. S., Chen, J.  (2000) Deletion of germline promoter PDβ1 from the TCRβ locus causes hypermethylation that impairs Dβ1 recombination by multiple mechanisms.  Immunity 13:703-714.

43. Sieh, P., Chen, J.  (2001) Effect of distance of Vβ to Dβ and Eβ on the frequency and timing Vβ rearrangement at the T cell receptor β locus. J. Immunol. 167:2121-2129.

44. Cho, B. K., Lian, K.-C., Lee, P., Brunmark, A., Chen, J., Kranz, D. M., Eisen, H. N. (2001) Differences in antigen-recognition and cytolytic activity of CD8+ and CD8- T cells that express the same antigen-specific receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:1723-1727.

45. Qu, C.-K., Nguyen, S., Chen, J., Feng, G.-S.  (2001) Requirement of Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase in lymphoid and hematopoietic cell development. Blood 97:911-914.

46. Ge, Q., Varada, R., Cho, B., Eisen, H. N., Chen, J.  (2001) Dependence of lymphopenia-induced T cell proliferation on the abundance of peptide/MHC epitopes and strength of their interaction with T cell receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:1728-1733.

47. Whitehurst, C.E., Hu, H., Ryu, C.J., Rajendran, P., Schmidt, T., Chen, J. (2001) Normal TCRβ gene transcription and recombination in the absence of the intronic cis regulatory elements between Jβ2-Cβ2.  Mol. Immunol. 38:55-63.

48. Esau, C., Boes, M., Youn, H.-D., Tatterson, L., Liu, J.O., Chen, J.  (2001) Deletion of calcineurin and MEF2 binding domain of Cabin1 results in enhanced cytokine gene expression in T cells.  J. Exp. Med. 194:1449-1459.

49. Sagawa, S., Palliser, D., Eisen, H. N., Chen, J.  (2002) How do cultured CD8+ T cell clones survive repeated ligation of the T cell receptor?  Intl. Immunol. 14:23-30.

50. Ge, Q., Hu, H., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J. (2002) Naïve to memory T cell differentiation during homeostasis-driven proliferation.  Microbes Infect. 4:555-558.

51. Ge, Q., Hu, H., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J.  (2002) Different contributions of thymopoiesis and homeostasis-driven proliferation to the reconstitution of naïve and memory T cell compartments.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:2989-2994.

52. Ge, Q., Palliser, D., Eisen, H.N, Chen, J.  (2002) Homeostatic T cell proliferation in an in vitro system of T cell-dendritic cell coculture.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:2983-2988.

53. McManus, M.T., Peterson, C., Haines, B.B., Chen, J., Sharp, P.A.  (2002) Gene silencing using micro-RNA designed hairpins.  RNA 8:842-850.

54. Chen, J., Ge, Q., Cho, B. Eisen, H.N.  (2002) T cell proliferation, differentiation, and restoration in lymphopenic individuals.  Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 512:135-140.

55. McManus, M.T., Haines, B.B., Dillon, C.P., Whitehurst, C.E., Van Parijs, L., Chen, J., Sharp, P.A.  (2002) Small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing in T-lymphocytes.  J. Immunol. 169:5754-60.

56. Boes, M., Cerny, J., Massol, R., Op den Brouw, M., Kirchhausen, T., Chen, J., Ploegh, H.L.  (2002) T-cell engagement of dendritic cells rapidly rearranges MHC class II transport. Nature 418:983-988.

57. Ge, Q., Stone, J.D., Thompson, M.T., Cochran, J.R., Rushe, M., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J., Stern, L.J. (2002) Soluble peptide-MHC monomers cause activation of CD8+ T cells through re-presentation of the peptide on T cell MHC molecules.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99:13729-13734.

58. Langford TD, Housley MP, Boes M, Chen J, Kagnoff MF, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. (2002) Central importance of immunoglobulin A in host defense against Giardia ssp. Infection and Immunity 70:11-18.

59. Alugupalli, K.R., Gerstein, R.M., Chen, J., Szomolanyi-Tsuda, E., Woodland, R.T., Leong, J.M. (2003) Resolution of replapsing fever Borreliosis requires IgM and B1b lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 170:3819-3827.

60. Ge, Q., McManus, M., Nguyen, T., Shen, C.-H., Sharp, P.A., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J.  (2003) RNA interference of influenza virus production by directly targeting mRNA for degradation and indirectly inhibiting all viral RNA transcription. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100:2718-2723. PMID:12594334.

61. Chen, J. Eisen, H. N. Kranz, D. M.  (2003) A model T cell receptor system for studying memory T cell development.  Microbes & Infection 5:233-240.

62. Ge, Q., Bai, A., Shen, C.H., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J. (2003) CD4+ T-cell responses to self-peptide-MHC. Trends Immunol. 24:186-9.

63. Rider, T.H., Petrovick, M.S., Nargi, F.E., Harper, J.D., Schwoebel, E.D., Mathews, R.H., Blanchard, D.J., Bortolin, L.T., Young, A.M., Chen, J., Hollis, M.A. (2003) A B cell-based sensor for rapid identification of pathogens.  Science, 301:213-215.

64. Ryu, C.J., Haines, B.B., Draganov, D.D., Kang, Y.H., Whitehurst, C.E., Schmidt, T., Hong, H.J., Chen, J.  (2003) The T cell receptor b enhancer promotes access and pairing of Dβ and Jβ gene segments during V(D)J recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100:13465-13470.

65. Wang, V.E.H., Schmidt, T., Chen, J., Sharp, P.A., Tantin, D. (2004) Embryonic lethality, decreased erythropoiesis, and defective octamer-dependent promoter activation in Oct-1-deficient mice.  Mol. Cell. Biol. 24:1022-1032.

66. Ge, Q., Bai, A., Jones, B., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J. (2004) Competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes and cytokines between naïve and memory CD8+ T cells expressing the same or different T cell receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101:304-3046.

67. Wang, V.E.H., Tantin, D., Chen, J., Sharp, P.A. (2004) B cell development and immunoglobulin transcription in Oct-1-deficient mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101:2005-2010.

68. Wang, C., Ge, Q., Ting, D., Nguyen, D., Shen, H., Chen, J., Eisen, H. N., Heller, J., Langer, R., Putnam, D. (2004) Molecular engineered poly(ortho ester) microspheres for enhanced delivery of DNA vaccines. Nature Materials, 3:190-196.

69. Rudolph, M. G., Shen, L. Q., Lamontagne, S. A., Delaney, J. R., Cho, B. K., Palliser, D., Ge, Q., Mckinley, C. A., Chen, J., Luz, J. G., Wilson, I. A., and Eisen, H. N. (2004) Receptor-mediated reactions with syngeneic and allogeneic agonists: functional and structural aspects. J. Immunol. 172:2994-3002.

70. Kojima, H., Jones, B., Chen, J., Cascalho, M., and Sitkovsky, M.V.,  (2004) Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha-deficient chimeric mice as a model to study abnormal B lymphocyte development and autoimmunity. Methods Enzymol. 381:218-229.

71.  Ryu, C.J., Haines, B.B., Lee, H.R., Kang, Y.H., Draganov, D.D. Whitehurst, C.E., Hong, H.J., Chen, J.  (2004) The TCRβ variable gene promoter is required for efficient Vβ rearrangement but not allelic exclusion.  Mol. Cell Biol. 24:7015-7023.

72. Ge, Q., Filip, L., Bai, A., Nguyen, T., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J.  (2004) Inhibition of influenza virus production in virus-infected mice by RNA interference. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101:8676-8681. PMID:15173599.

73.  Little, S. R. Lyn, D. M., Ge, Q., Anderson, D. G., Puram, S. V., Chen, J., Eisen, H., Langer, R. (2004) Poly-β amino ester containing microparticles enhance non-viral genetic vaccines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101:9534-9539.

74. Ge, Q., Eisen, H.N., and Chen, J. (2004) Use of siRNAs to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. Virus Research 102:37-42.

75. Thomas M., Ge, Q., Lu J., Chen, J., and Klibanov, A.M. (2005) Creating cross-linked small polyethylenimines that are non-toxic and deliver DNA efficiently to mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Pharmaceutical Research, 23:373-380.

76. Mahajan V. Leskov, I. B. and Chen, J. (2005) Homeostasis of T cell diversity. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 2:1-10.

77.  Thomas, M., Lu, J. J., Ge, Q., Zhang, C., Chen, J., Klibanov, A. M. (2005) Deacylation of polyethylenimine dramatically enhances gene delivery efficiency and specificity in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102:5679-5684.

78. Thomas, M., Ge, Q., Lu, J.J. Klibanov, A.M., Chen, J. (2005) Polycation-mediated delivery of siRNAs for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infection.
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 5:495-505.

79. Bao, M., Zhang, Y., Wan, M., Dai, L., Hu, X., Wu, X., Wang, L., Deng, P., Wang, J., Liu, Y.-J., Chen, J., Yu, Y., Wang, L. (2006) Anti-SARS-CoV immunity induced by a novel CpG oligonucleotide. J. Clin. Immunol. 118:180-7.

80. Ge, Q., Holler, P. D., Leng, Q., Mahajan, V., Eisen, H. N., and Chen, J. (2006) Development of CD4+ T cells expressing a MHC class I restricted T cell receptor by two different mechanisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 103:1822-7.

81. Haines, B.B., Ryu, C.J., Chang, S., Protopopov, A., Luch, A., Kang, Y.H., Draganov, D.D. Fragoso, M. F., Paik, S. G., Hong, H.J., DePinho, R., Chen, J.  (2006) Block of T cell development in p53-deficient mice accelerates development of lymphomas with characteristic RAG-dependent cytogenetic alterations. Cancer Cell 9:109-20. 

82. Oestreich K.J., Cobb, R.M., Pierce, S., Chen J., Ferrier, P., Oltz, E.M. (2006) Regulation of TCRβ gene assembly by a promoter/enhancer holocomplex. Immunity 24:381-91.

83. Haines, B.B., Ryu, C.J., Chen, J. (2006) Recombination activating genes (RAG) in lymphoma development. Cell Cycle 5:913-6.

84. Jones, B., Chen, J. (2006) Inhibition of IFN-γ transcription by site-specific methylation during T helper cell development. The EMBO Journal, 25:2443-52.

85. Ge, Q., Pastey, M., Kobasa, D., Puthavathana, P., Lupfer, C., Bestwick, R. K., Iversen, P. L., Chen, J., Stein, D.A. (2006) Inhibitioin of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with morpholino oligomers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50:3724-3733. 

86. Haldar, J., An, D. Alvarez de Cienfuegos, L., Chen, J. Klibanov, A. (2006) Polymeric coatings that inactivate both influenza virus and pathogenic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 103:17667-71. PMID:17101983.

87. Leng, Q., Ge, Q., Nguyen, T. Eisen, H. N., Chen, J. (2007) Stage-dependent reactivity of thymocytes to self-peptide-MHC complexes.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104:5038-43.

88. Bai, A., Hu, H., Yeung, M., Chen, J. (2007) Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) controls T cell trafficking by activating L-selectin (CD62L) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) transcription. Journal of Immunology, 178:7632-9.

89.  Thomas, M., Lu, J. J., Chen, J., Klibanov, A. (2007) Identification of novel superior polycationic vectors for gene delivery by high-throughput synthetic and screening of a combinatorial library. Pharma. Res. 24:1567-71.

90. Thomas, M., Lu, J. J., Chen, J., Klibanov, A. (2007) Non-viral siRNA delivery to the lung. Adv Drug Delivery Reviews, 59:124-33.

91. Fischer, M.B., Rüger, B., Vaculik, C., Becherer, A., Wadsak, W., Yanagida, G., Losert, U.M., Chen, J., Carroll, M.C., Eibl, M.M. (2007) The presence of MOMA-2+ macrophages in the outer B cell zone and protection of the splenic micro-architecture from LPS-induced destruction depend on secreted IgM. Eur J Immunol. 37:2825-33.

92. Guttormsen HK, Stuart LM, Shi L, Carroll MC, Chen J, Kasper DL, Ezekowitz RA, Takahashi K. (2008) Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin greatly increases antibody response in a mouse model of vaccination. Clin Immunol. 2008 Nov 7.

93. Shen, C.-H., Ge, Q., Talay, O., Eisen, H. N., Garcia-Sastre, A., Chen, J. (2008) Loss of  interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-15 receptors is associated with disappearance of memory CD8 T cells in respiratory track. Journal of Immunology, 180:171-8. PMID:18097017.

94. Haldar, J., Chen, J. Tumpey, T.M., Gubareva, L.V., Klibanov, A. (2008) Hydrophobic polycationic coatings inactivate wild-type and zanamivir-and/or oseltamivir-resistant human and avian influenza viruses. Biotechnology Letters. 30:475-9. PMID:17972018.

95. Chen, J., Chen, S. C.-Y., Stern, P., Scott, B. B., Lois, C. (2008) Genetic strategy to prevent infection.  J. Infectious Diseases. 197 Suppl 1:S25-8.

96. Kocher, O., Yesilaltay, A., Shen, C.-H., Zhang, S., Daniels, K., Pal, R., Chen, J., Krieger, M. (2008) Influence of PDZK1 on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1782:310-6.

97.  Leng, Q., Nie, Y., Zou, Y., Chen, J. (2008) Elevated CXCL12 expression in the bone marrow of NOD mice is associated with altered T cell and stem cell trafficking and diabetes development. BMC Immunology, 9:51-63.

98. Megan J. Palmer, Vinay S. Mahajan, Lily C. Trajman, Darrell J. Irvine, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Jianzhu Chen (2008) Interleukin-7 receptor signaling network: An integrated systems perspective. Cell Mol Immunol, 5:79-89. PMID: 18445337.

99. Bai, A., Higham, E., Wittrup, D., Eisen, H.N., Chen, J. (2008) Rapid tolerization of tumor-infiltrating effector T cells in the prostate of TRAMP mice. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 105:13003-8.
100. Cheung, A.F., DuPage, M. J. P., Fong, H. K., Chen, J., Jacks, T. (2008) Regulated expression of a tumor-associated antigen reveals multiple levels of T cell tolerance in a mouse model of lung cancer. Cancer Research. 68:9459-68. PMID: 19010921.
101. Mahajan, V. S., Drake, A., Chen, J. (2009) MicroRNAs and persistent viral infection in vertebrates. Trends in Immunology, 30:1-7.
102. Hu Y, Lu JJ, Atukorale P, Choi EC, Wang Y, Chen J, Irvine DJ (2009) Cytosolic delivery mediated via electrostatic surface binding of protein, virus, or siRNA cargos to pH-responsive core-shell nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules. 10:756-65. PMID: 19239276.
103.  Talay O, Shen C-H, Chen L and Chen J (2009) B7-H1 (PD-L1) is required for T cell-mediated conditioning of dendritic cell maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106:2741-6. PMID: 19202065.
104. Leptihn S, Har JY, Chen J, Ho B, Wohland T, Ding JL (2009) Single molecule resolution of the antimicrobial action of QDot-Sushi peptide on live bacteria. BMC Biol, 7:22. PMID: 19432949.

105. Low DH, Ang Z, Yuan Q, Frecer V, Ho B, Chen J and Ding JL (2009) A novel human tectonin protein with multivalent β-propeller folds interacts with ficolin and binds bacterial LPS. PLoS One, 4:e6260. PMID: 19606221.
106. Lu JJ, Langer R and Chen J (2009) A novel mechanism is involved in cationic lipid-mediated functional siRNA delivery. Mol Pharm, 6:763-771. PMID: 19292453.
107. Chervin AS, Stone JD, Holler PD, Bai A, Chen J, Eisen HN, Kranz DM (2009) The impact of TCR-binding properties and antigen presentation format on T cell responsiveness. J Immunol. 183:1166-78. PMID: 19553539.

108.  Nguyen D, Chen C-Y, Lu J, Goldberg M, Kim P, Sprague A, Novobrantseva T, Sherman, J., Shulga-Morskaya, S., de Fougerolles, A., Chen, J., Langer, R., Anderson, D. G. (2009) Drug delivery-mediated control of RNA immunostimulation. Mol. Ther. 17:1555-62. PMID: 19584813.

109. DuPage M, Cheung A, Mazumdar C, Winslow M, Bronson R, Crowley D, Chen J and Jacks J (2011) Endogenous T cell responses to lung adenocarcinoma neoantigens delay tumor progression. Cancer Cell, 19:72-85. PMID: 21251614.

110. Higham EM, Wittrup KD and Chen J (2010) Activation of tolerigenic dendritic cells in the tumor draining lymph nodes by CD8+ T cells engineered to express CD40 Ligand. J. Immunol. 184:3394-400. PMID: 20200275.

111.  Chen Q, Khoury M, Chen J (2009) Expression of human cytokine genes dramatically improves reconstitution of specific human blood lineage cells in humanized mice. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106:21783-8. PMID: 19966223.

112. Haldar J, Alvarez de Cienduegos L, Tumpey TM, Gubareva LV, Chen J, Klibanov AM. (2010) Bifunctional polymeric inhibitors of human influenza viruses. Pharm Res. 27:259-63. PMID: 20013036.

113. Shen C-H, Talay O, Mahajan V, Leskov IB, Eisen HN, Chen J (2010) Antigen-bearing dendritic cells regulates the diverse pattern of memory CD8 T-cell development in different tissues. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA, 107:22587-92. PMID: 21149737.

114. Khoury M, Drake A, Chen Q, Dong D, Leskov I, Fragoso M, Li Y, Iliopoulou B, Hwang W, Lodish H, Chen J (2011) Mesenchymal stem cells secreting angiopoietin-like 5 support efficient expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells without compromising their repopulating potential. Stem Cells Dev, 20:1371-81. PMID: 21142526.

115. Low, DH, Frecer V, Le Saux A, Srinivasan GA, Ho B, Chen J and Ding JL (2010) Molecular interfaces of the galactose-binding protein Tectonin domains in host-pathogen interaction. J Biol Chem, 285:9898-907. PMID: 20118243.
116. Higham EM, Shen C-H, Wittrup, K. D. and Chen, J. (2010) Cutting Edge: Delay and reversal of T cell tolerance by Iitratumoral injection of antigen-loaded dendritic cells in an autochthonous tumor model. J. Immunol. 184:5954-8. PMID: 20427765.
117. Weight AK, Haldar J, Alvarez de Cienduegos L, Gubareva LV, Tumpey TM, Chen J, Klibanov AM. (2011) Attaching zanamivir to a polymer markedly enhances its activity against drug-resistant strains of influenza A virus. J. Pharm Sci. 100:831-5. PMID: 20740680.

118.  Ding X, Yang W, Shi X, Du P, Su L, Qin Z, Chen J, Deng H. (2010) Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 mediates dendritic cell maturation and CD8 T cell response through two distinct mechanisms. J Immunol, 187:1184-91. PMID: 21709152.

119. Palmer MJ, Mahajan VS, Chen J, Lauffenburger DA, Irvine DJ. (2011) Cell-intrinsic heterogeneity in IL-7 receptor-dependent survival and proliferation capacities of naïve CD8+ T-cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 89:581-94. PMID: 21339767.

120.  Zhang L, Meissner, Chen, J, Su L. (2010) Current humanized mouse models for studying human immunology and HIV-1 immuno-pathology. Sci China Life Sci, 53:195-203. PMID: 20596827.

121. Larson AM, Hsu B, Rautaray D, Haldar J, Chen J, Klibanov AM. (2011) Hydrophobic polycationic coatings disinfect poliovirus and rotavirus solutions. Biotechnol Bioeng, 108:720-3. PMID: 20967804.
122. Yang W, Ding X, Deng J, Lu Y, Matsuda Z, Thiel A, Chen J, Deng H, Qin Z. (2011) Interferon-gamma negatively regulates Th17-mediated immunopathology during mouse hepatitis virus infection. J Mol Med, 89:399-409. PMID: 21191565.
123. Hsu BB, Wong S, Hammond, PT, Chen J, Klibanov AM. (2011) Mechanism of inactivation of influenza viruses by immobilized hydrophobic polycations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 108:61-6. PMID: 21173278.
124. Novershtern N, Subramanian A, Lawton L, Mak RH, Haining WN, McConkey ME, Habib N, Yosef N, Chang CY, Shay T, Frampton G, Leskov I, Drake ACB, BNilsson B, Preffer F, Dombkowski D, Evans J, Liefeld T, Smutko JS, Chen J, Friedman N, Young R, Golub T, Regev A, Ebert BL (2011) The transcriptional architecture of human hematopoiesis: tightly integrated circuits and new transcriptional regulators controlling cell states. Cell, 144:296-309. PMID: 21241896.

125.  Drake, A., Khoury, M., Leskov, I., Iliopoulou, B., Fragoso, M., Lodish, H., Chen, J. (2011) Human C34 CD133 hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOS-SCID Il2rg (NSG) Mice. PLoS One, e18382. PMID:21559522.

126.  Yang Cao, Xiaoying Koh, Libo Dong, Xiangjun Du, Aiping Wu, Xilai Ding, Hongyu Deng, Yuelong Shu, Jianzhu Chen, Taijiao Jiang. (2011) Rapid estimation of binding activity of influenza virus hemagglutinin to human and avian receptors. PLoS One, 6:e18664. PMID: 21533248.

127. Olurinde MO, Shen C-H, Drake A, Bai A, Matsudaira PT, Chen J. (2011) Persistence of Tolerant Tumor-specific CD8 T Cells is Antigen-independent. Cell Mol Immunol. 8:425-23. PMID:21666707. 

128. Chen S. C.-Y, Stern P, Guo Z, Chen J. (2011) Expression of multiple artificial microRNAs from a chicken miRNA126-based lentiviral vector. PloS One. 6:e22437. PMID: 21789258.

129. Panneerselvam P, Singh LP, Ho B, Chen J, Ding JL. (2011) Targeting of proapoptotic TLR adaptor, SARM, to mitochondria: definition of critical region and residues in the signal sequence. Biochem J. 442:263-71. PMID: 22145856.

130. Hong J, Shah N, Drake, AC, Lee, JB, Chen J, Hammond, PT. (2012) Graphene multilayers as gates for multi-week sequential release of proteins from surfaces. ACS Nano. 6:81-8. PMID: 22176729.

131. Ong LM, Fan X, Chu PPY, Gay FPH, Bari S, Ang JML, Li Z, Chen J, Lim SK, Bunte RM, Hwang WYK. (2012) Cotransplantation of ex vivo expanded and unexpanded cord blood units in immunodeficient mice using IGFBP2-augmented mesenchymal cell co-cultures. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 18:674-82. PMID: 22240732.

132. Yamada Y, Limmon GV, Zheng D, Li N, Li L, Yin L, Chow VTK, Chen J, Engelward BP. (2012) Major shifts in the spatio-temporal distrivution of lung antioxidant enzymes during influenza pneumonia. PloS One, 7:e31494. PMID:22355371.

133.  Nassar RA, Browne EP, Chen J, Klibanov AM. (2012) Removing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from human blood using immobilized heparin. Biotechnol Lett. Epub ahead of print.

134. Leskov I, Pallasch CP, Drake A, Iliopoulo BP, Souza A, Shen C-H, Schweighofer CD, Abruzzo L, Frenzel LP, Wendtner CM, Hemann MT  and Chen J. (2012) Rapid generation of human B-cell leukemia via combined expression of Myc and Bcl2. Oncogene, 32:1066-1072. PMID: 22484426.

135. Eisen HN, Hou HX, Shen C-H, Wang K, Keelara V, Smith C, Kozyrytska K, Nambiar L, McKinley CA, Chen J, Cohen RJ. (2012) Promiscuous binding of extracellular peptides to cell-surface class I MHC protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109:4580-5. PMID: 22403068.

136. Drake AC, Chen Q, Chen J. (2012) Engineering humanized mice for improved hematopoietic reconstitution. Cell Mol Immunol. 9:215-24. PMID: 22425741.

137. Nguyen DN, Mahon KP, Chikh G, Kim P, Chung H, Vicari AP, Love KT, Goldberg M, Chen S, Krieg AM, Chen J, Langer R, Anderson DG.(2012) Lipid-derived nanpparticles for immunostimulatory RNA adjuvant delivery. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109:E797-803. PMID: 22421433.

138. Bak SP, Barnkob MS, Bai A, Higham EM, Wittrup KD, Chen J. (2012) Differential requirement for CD70 and CD80/CD86 in dendritic cell-mediated activation of tumor tolerized CD8 T cells. J. Immunol. 189:1708-16. PMID: 22798683.

139. Larson AM, Wang H, Cao Y, Jiang T, Chen J, and Klibanov AM. (2012) Conjugating drug candidates to polymeric chains does not necessarily enhance anti-influenza activity. J. Pharma Sci. 101:3896-906. PMID: 22786697.

140. Stephan MT, Stephan SB, Bak P, Chen J, Irvine DJ . (2012) Synapse-directed delivery of immunomodulators using T-cell-conjugated nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 33:5776-87. PMID: 22594972.

141. Soh BS, Zheng D, Li Yeo JS, Yang HH, Ng SY, Wong LH, Zhang W, Li P, Nichane M, Asmat A, Wong PS, Wong PC, Su LL, Mantalaris SA, Lu J, Xian W, McKeon F, Chen J, Lim EH, Lim B. (2012) CD166(pos) subpopultion from differentiated human ES and iPS cells support repair of acute lung injury. Mol. Ther. 10:2335-46. PMID: 22968480.

142. Lee CM, Weight AK, Wang L, Haldar J, Klibanov AM, Chen J. (2012) Polymer-attached zanamivir inhibits synergistically both early and late steps of influenza virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109:20385-90. PMID: 23185023.

143. Chen Q, Kwang J, He F, Chan JKY, Chen J. (2012) GM-CSF and IL-4 stimulate antibody responses in humanized mice by T, B and dendritic cell maturation. J. Immunol.189:5223-9. PMID: 23089398.

144. Zheng D, Limmon GV, Yin L, Leung NH, Yu H, Chow VTK, Chen J. (2012) Regeneration of alveolar type I and II cells from Scgb1a1-expressing cells following severe pulmonary damage induced by bleomycin and influenza. PlosOne, 7:e48451. PMID: 23119022.

145. Panneerseivam P, Singh LP, Seivarajan V, Chng WJ, Ng SB, Tan NS, Ho B, Chen J, Ding JL. (2012) T-cell death following immune activation is mediated by mitochondria-localized SARM. Cell Death & Differentiation. 1-12.

146. Li N, Yin L, Thevenin D, Yamada Y, Limmon G, Chen J, Chow VTK, Engelman DE, Engelward BP. (2013) Peptide targeting and imaging of demaged lung tissue in influenza-infected mice. Future Microbiol. 8:257-69. PMID: 23374130.

147. Chen Q, Khoury M, Limmon G, Choolani M, Chan JKY, Chen J. (2013) Human fetal hepatic stem cells are distinct from, but closely related to, hematopoietic stem cells. Stem Cells, 31:1160-9. PMID: 23404852.

148. Lu Y, Xu S, Cheng J, Zheng D, Limmon GV, Leung NHN, Rajapakse JC, Chow VTK, Chen J, Yu H. (2013) Spatiotemporal quantification of cell dynamics in the lung following influenza virus infection. J Biomedical Optics, 18:046001. PMID: 23940685.

149. Zheng D, Limmon GV, Yin L, Leung NH, Yu H, Chow VTK, Chen J. (2013) A cellular pathway involved in Clara cell to alveolar type II cell differentiation. Plos One, 8:e71028.

150. Chen H, Cho K-S, Shen C-H, Chen G, Mathew R, McHam ML, Fazelat A, Lashkari K, Stein-Streilein J, Chen J, Chen DF. Autoimmune CD4 T cell responses to heat shock protein 27 mediate progressive neurodegeneration in glaucoma. Submitted.

150. Delgado FF, Cermak N, Hecht VC, Son S, Li Y, Knudsen SM, Olcum S, Higgins JM, Chen J, Grover WH, Manalis¬¬¬¬ SR. (2013) Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells. PloS One, 8:e67590. PMID: 23844039.

151. Weight AK, Belser JA, Tumpey TM, Chen J and Klibanov AM. (2014) Zanamivir conjugated to poly-L-glutamine is far more active against influenza viruses in vivo than the drug itself. Pharmaceutical Research. 31:466-74. PMID: 24065587.

152. Li Y, Chen Q, Zheng D, Lu Y, Chion YH, Wang L, Chan JKY, Alonso S, Dedon PC, Lim B, Chen J. (2013) Induction of functional human macrophages from bone marrow promonocytes by M-CSF in humanized mice. J. Immunol. 191:3192-9. PMID: 23935193.

153. Sridharan A, Chen Q, Tang KF, Oo EE, Hibberd ML, Chen J. (2013) Inhibition of megakaryocyte development in the bone marrow underlies dengue virus-induced thrombocytopenia in humanized mice. J Virol, 87:11648-58. PMID 23966397.

154. Larson AM, Chen J, Klibanov A. (2013) Conjugation to polymeric chains of influenza drugs targeting M2 ion channels partially restores their inhibition of drug-resistant mutants. J. Phar. Sci. 102:2450-9. PMID 23832466.

155. Zhu Y, Yao S, Iliopoulou B, Han X, Augustine MM, Xu H, Wang X, Flies SJ, Broadwater M, Ruff W, Taube JM, Luo L, Zhu G, Chen J, Chen L. (2013) Interaction of CD28H and B7-H5 costimulates naïve and recently activated effector human T cells. Nature Communication, 19:2043. PMID 23784006.

156. Hu G and Chen J. (2013) A genome-wide regulatory network identifies key transcription factors for memory CD8+ T cell development. Nature Communication, 4:2830. PMID: 24335726.

157. Bak SP, Barnkob MS, Wittrup KD, Chen J. (2013) CD8+ T cell response rapidly select for antigen-negative tumor cells in the prostate. Cancer Immunol Res, 1:393-401.

158. We A, Su C, Wang D, Peng Y, Liu M, Hua S, Li T, Gao GF, Tang H, Chen J, Liu X, Shu Y, Peng D, Jiang T. (2013) Sequential reassortments underlie diverse influenza H7N9 genotypes in China. Cell Host Microbe. 14:446-52. PMID 24065587.

159. Zheng D, Lu Y, Chen J. (2013) Evidence for scgb1a1+ cells in the generation of p63+ cells in the damaged lung parenchyma. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 24134540.

160. Pallasch CP, Leskov I, Braun CJ, Vorholt D, Drake A, Soto-Feliciano YM, Bent EH, Schwamb J, Iliopoulou B, Kutsch N, van Rooijen N, Frenzel LP, Wendtner CM, Heukamp L, Kreuzer KA, Hallek M, Chen J, Hemann MT. (2014) Sensitizing protective tumor microenvironments to antibody-mediated therapy. Cell, 156:590-602. PMID: 24485462.
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161. Sim AC, Too CT, Oo MZ, Lai J, Eio MY, Song Z, Srinivasan N, Tan DA, Pang SW, Gan SU, Lee KO, Loh TK, Chen J, Chan SH, Macary PA. (2013) Defining the expression hierarchy of latent T-cell epitopes in Epstein-Barr virus infection with TCR-like antibodies. Sci Rep. 3:3232. PMID: 24240815.

162.  Yin L, Zheng D, Limmon GV, Leung NHN, Xu S, Rajapakse JC, Yu H, Chow VTK, Chen J. Aging exacerbates damage and delays repair of alveolar epithelia. Submitted.

163.  Kumar Y, Liang C, Limmon GV, Liang L, Engelward B, Ooi EE, Chen J, Tannenbaum SR. (2014) Molecular analysis of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in a mouse model of influenza reveals markers of disease severity that can be clinically useful in humans. Plos One, 9:e86912. PMID: 24505273.

164. Chen Q, Amaladoss A, Ye W, Liu M, Dummler S, Kong F, Wong LH, Loo HL, Loh E, Tan SQ, Tan TC, Chang KTE, Dao M, Suresh S, Preiser PR, Chen J. (2014) Natural killer cells control Plasmodium falciparum infection by eliminating infected red blood cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 111:1479-84. PMID: 24474774.

165. Oo MZ, Tan WJ, Khoury M, Chen J, Chen J, MacAry PA. Defining a causal role for Epstein-Barr virus in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and malignancy. Submitted.